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Wetlands balance nature's flow

At first glance, it seems like a wacky idea.

Clean Water Services, the regional sewer agency, is building a manmade wetlands and Japanese garden at its wastewater treatment plant in Forest Grove.

Not only that, but the water flowing through the wetlands and garden also will be treated effluent.

According to Forest Grove City Commissioner Victoria Lowe, the project actually makes a lot of sense. It is intended to expand the capacity of the Forest Grove Wastewater Treatment Facility by naturally cooling and reconditioning the treated water before it flows into the Tualatin River.

Although the project will cost around $12 million, increasing the capacity of the Forest Grove plant would cost a lot more.

“Natural treatment will be a lower cost solution than building more infrastructure. It will also be more environmentally sensitive because it does not require a lot energy for cooling the water before it is discharged,” says Lowe.

And the plant is already in the 748-acre Fernhill Wetlands, a world-renowned destination for bird waters and nature lovers. Its three large ponds are actually sewage lagoons that were decommissioned after the plant was built. They attract a wide range of wildlife, including Bald Eagles and migrating water foul.

The project has widespread community support, including the backing of the Fernhill Wetlands Council, the nonprofit organization formed to preserve, enhance and promote the wetlands there. The organization — which includes Lowe — plans to build an interpretive center near where the new wetland is being built. by: TRIBUNE PHOTO: CHASE ALLGOOD - Contractors work on the landscaping near one of the wooden pedestrian bridges in the Japanese garden under construction at the Forest Grove Wastewater Treatment Facility. A sketch by landscape designer Hoichi Kurisu (below) shows how part of it will look when finished.

The first phase of the project will not be complete for another year or more. Although it is a new concept for Clean Water Services, natural treatment is being used more and more at other wastewater plants around the world. The closest example is in Silverton, where the city’s treated wastewater flows through the Oregon Gardens before reaching Silver Creek. Thousands of visitors walk through the popular tourist attraction every year without giving a second thought to the water irrigating the many varieties of plants found there.

“There have been no problems with it,” says Steve Starner, water quality supervisor for the city of Silverton, which operates the wastewater treatment plant.

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On a partly cloudy day in late October, about a dozen workers installed an irrigation system and stuck young plants in the ground in wetlands being built just east of the Forest Grove Wastewater Treatment Facility, 1345 Fern Hill Road. Early fall rains had turned the ground to mud, requiring tall rubber boots to move around.

Much work had already been accomplished during the summer, however. Approximately three acres had been graded to simulate a natural wetlands, complete with channels where the water will snake through plants. Around 1,000 tons of boulders had been trucked in, the largest weighing nearly seven tons. About 500 trees and tens of thousands of native plants had been planted. And two arched wooden foot bridges had been installed at the transition between the new and existing wetlands.

“You can really get an idea how the wetlands is going to work now. When we started, most of it was just asphalt,” project manager John Drummer said as waves of geese flew overhead.

The Japanese garden portion of the project was designed by internationally acclaimed landscape garden designer Hoichi Kurisu. President and principle designer of the Portland’s Kurisu International, he has received numerous awards around the world for his meditative gardens, include one at the Samaritan Lebanon Community Hospital, in Lebanon, Oregon, which was the winner of a 2006 “Healthcare Environment Award for Landscape Design.”by: TRIBUNE PHOTO: CHASE ALLGOOD - John Dummer is managing the Fernhil Wetlands projects for Clean Water Services.

Although the garden is intended to serve as a peaceful respite for visitors, it has a practical side, too. The plants will help cool and add important nutrients to the treated wastewater. And some of the boulders have been piled up to create a waterfall that will add oxygen into the water.

by: TRIBUNE PHOTO: CHASE ALLGOOD - The Wetlands and Japanese garden at the Forest Grove Wastewater Treatment Facility will condition and cool treated wastewater before it flows into the Tualatin River. The goal is to allow the Forest Grove Wastewater Treatment Facility to be used year-round. Oregon’s Department of Environmental Quality only allows it to be used in rainy months when the Tualatin River is at its highest levels. That is because the two-stage treatment process at the plant does not meet DEQ standards for low water conditions. Adding the natural treatment process should allow the water to meet DEQ standards at all times.

That is what is happening in Silverton, which has a similar treatment plant.

According to Clean Water Services officials, the project is largely driven by population and business growth in the Forest Grove and Hillsboro areas, including the high-tech companies that use a lot of water in their manufacturing processes.

Challenges of the property

According to Lowe, Clean Water Services had originally planned to replace the three decommissioned sewage lagoons with the treatment wetlands. This makes some sense. The lagoons — located between the plant and the river — are not natural. They were dug out of the ground and lined with heavy vinyl many decades ago.

But as Lowe sees it, since they were decommissioned, the manmade lagoons have struck a balance with nature. They repeatedly fill up with rainwater and floodwaters from the river, becoming large ponds that attract wildlife. The banks between them form natural trails that allow visitors to walk to otherwise inaccessible viewing locations. Replacing them would require heavy equipment that would drive the wildlife away and destroy the trails.

“The community wouldn’t have stood for it,” says Lowe.

When Forest Grove sold the property to Clean Water Services several years ago, Lowe inserted language in the contract that required the former lagoons and trail to remain. In response, Clean Water Services officials eventually decided to build the new wetlands on the uplands overlooking them. Lowe calls the decision a brilliant solution that secured the support of the wetlands council and other advocates for the area.

“Balancing what man needs and what nature demands is the challenge for that property,” says Lowe.

Treated wastewater could start flowing through the new wetlands in December. It will originally be piped in from the Rock Creek Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility operated by Clean Water Services in Hillsboro.

That plant uses a three-stage treatment program and its treated water can be discharged into the Tualatin River year-round. Water from the Forest Grove plant is sent there when it is prohibited from operating.

Plans call for the water to be switched to the Forest Grove plant once the plants are firmly established in the new wetlands, which could take over a year.

In the meantime, construction continues on the Japanese garden, which should open to the public in early 2013.




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